Nordic Forestry
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Subject fields and objectives

Subject field Objective Subject field Objective
A. Genetic diversity and breeding 1 Exotic tree species B. Regeneration and stand establishment 10 Planting
2 Provenances (clinal variation) 11 Sowing
3 Genetic variation within and among stands 12 Shelterwood cutting
4 Progeny testing (controlled crosses) 13 Seed-tree cutting
5 Phenotypic plasticity (clones, rooted cuttings) 14 Soil preparation
6 Clonal tests (emblings) 15 Natural regeneration
7 Seed orchards and clonal archives (grafts) 16 Prescribed burning
8 After effects 17 Ditching drainage
C. Stand treatment, growth and yield 20 Thinning D. Ecosystem research 30 Watershed
21 Fertilization 31 Carbon, nutrient and water balance
22 Liming 32 Roof construction
23 Acidification 33 Climate change
24 Tree species comparison 34 Soil conservation
25 Tree species mixture 35 Forest protection
26 Selection cutting 36 Heavy metals
27 Pruning 37 Biodiversity
28 Urban forestry  
29 Cleaning  
E. Christmas Trees and decoration greenery 40 Genetics F. Wood for energy 50 Compensation
41 Establishment 51 Nutrient balances
42 Fertilization 52 Coppice-forest
43 Weed control 53 Whole tree harvesting
44 Insects and fungi 54 Slash removal
45 Yield and stand improvement  
46 Harvest and logistics  
G.Peat-land forestry 60 Drainage    
61 Fertilization  
63 Tree species comparison  

Description of objectives:

A. Genetic diversity and breeding

Exotic tree species: Comparison of different non-native tree species in relation to genetic diversity, adaptation and yield.
Provenances (clinal variation): Experiments established to compare different provenances (ecotypes) and their growth behavior (climatic adaptation) in respect to latitude, longitude or altitude.
Genetic variation among and within stands: Experiments established to compare the amount of variation contributed within as well as among populations.
Progeny testing (controlled crosses): Experiments established to investigate the offspring from controlled crosses between known parent trees.
Phenotypic plasticity (clones, rooted cuttings): The purpose is to investigate genetically identical individuals with respect to their phenotypic modification in relation to varying climatic conditions.
Clonal tests (emblings): Experiments to test field performance of clones propagated via somatic embryos.
Seed orchards and clonal archievs (grafts): Groups of trees or stands based on propagation of grafts.
After effects: Experiments established to test if the climatic adaptation of the plants/trees is dependent on weather conditions experienced by parent generation during flowering and seed maturation.

B. Regeneration and stand establishment

Planting: Regeneration experiments with planting.
Sowing: Regeneration experiments with sowing.
Shelterwood cutting: Regeneration (and yield) experiment after a shelterwood cutting. (Mainly natural regeneration, but sowing and planting can also be involved).
Seed-tree cutting: Regeneration (and yield) experiment after a seed-tree cutting. (Mainly natural regeneration, but sowing and planting can also be involved).
Soil preparation: Includes experiments with deep ploughing, scarification and also chemical weed control and the effect on regeneration.
Natural regeneration: Experiments with the aim of clarifying the success of natural regeneration. (Covering experiments that are not classified as seed-tree cutting or shelterwood cutting).
Prescribed burning: Experiments where prescribed burning has been performed to investigate the effect on regeneration.
Ditching drainage: Main purpose of the experiment is to analyze the drainage effects of different ditch distances and/or depths of ditches on tree performance.

C. Stand treatment growth and yield

Thinning: Experiments aiming at finding the effects of different kind of thinning (type, time, degree) on stand productivity, stability and diameter distribution etc.
Fertilization: Experiments with application of commercial fertilizer, other chemical agents or organic substances.
Liming: Application of liming substances (e.g. limestone, dolomite) to forest ground.
Ash fertilization: Application of ash (in various forms) to forest ground.
Acidification: Experiment with artificial acidification of the soil with acidified water or fertilization with sulphur-powder or other acidifying component.
Tree species comparison: Experiments comparing different tree species in pure stands.
Tree-species mixture: Experiments where different tree-species mixture within stands are compared. Selection cutting: Experiments aiming at studying growth and yield, diameter distribution, regeneration potential etc. where a selective cutting system has been used. (e.g. Plenterwald, bledning, plukkhogst, fjellskogsblädning).
Pruning: Experiments with the purpose of finding the effects of artificial pruning of trees - stands on production and wood properties/timber quality.
Urban forestry: Experiments aiming at highlight aspects of urban forests.
Cleaning: Growth and quality of young stands using different cleaning strategies as stem densities, tree-species mixtures, height or diameters.

D. Ecosystem research

Watershed: This is watershed management experiments that has some kind of manipulation within its frames, as e.g. liming, fertilization, tree species comparison or biomass removal (clear-cutting).
Carbon, nutrient and water balances: Experiments established with integrated studies of nutrient circulation, growth, yield, vitality, soil, soil-water etc. and with fertilization, ash, liming or irrigation and/or drought treatments.
Roof construction: Experiments where the purpose is to protect forest stands against atmospheric deposition by covering the area by a roof construction.
Climate change: To study cause and effects on soil, trees and other vegetation of permanent changes in temperature and precipitation, as well as increased carbon dioxide content in the air.
Soil conservation: Effects of biological and chemical measures taken in order to improve or compensate soil conditions due to water quality, atmospheric deposition and forestry.
Forest protection: Pathological and physical effects on forests of organisms as fungi, other micro-organisms, vertebrates and invertebrates. Effects of protection measures taken against these organisms.
Heavy metals: Uptake and circulation of heavy metals in trees, fungi and berries after liming, fertilization with nitrogen, other minerals, ash or afforestation of farmland. Effects of reduced atmospheric deposition on forest organisms.
Biodiversity: To reveal changes within and among foremost stationary, long-lived species (e.g., shrubs, mushrooms, lichens) due to forestry, long-term changes in climate or nutritional supply.A
Monitoring: Plots that are foremost used for long-term monitoring purposes. ICP Level II plots are included if they are old long-term experiments.

E. Christmas trees and decoration greenery

Genetics: Experiments dealing with genetic aspects of Christmas trees and greenery and the heredity of different characters.
Establishment: Cover experiments aimed at investigating plant types, plant age etc. for efficient establishment of Christmas trees and greenery plantations.
Fertilization: Experiments with application of commercial fertilizer, other chemical agents or organic substances.
Weed control: Different types of weed control as herbicides, manual weed control, covering, mulching and use of other plants to compete with weeds.
Insects and fungi: Experiments where special emphasis has been put to the control of insect- or fungi diseases.
Yield and stand improvement: Experiments that aims at finding most suitable tree species for Christmas tree and greenery production under different climatic conditions (including provenances).
Harvest and logistics: Experiments analyzing effects of different technical methods for harvesting and transport of decoration greenery.

F. Wood for energy

Compensation: Fertilization or ash application to forest ground with the aim to compensate for whole tree removal.
Nutrient balances: Experiments with the aim of looking specific into nutrient budgets/balances by whole tree harvest or whole tree thinning.
Coppice-forest: Bio-energy plantations or other coppice forest experiments.
Whole tree harvest: Experiments with objective to analyze the effects of whole tree removal on establishment, growth, yield and ecological factors.
Slash removal: Experiments that aims to analyze the effect of removing slash and debris on the regeneration or established stands.

G. Peat-land forestry

Drainage: Main purpose of the experiment is to analyze the drainage effects of different ditch distance and depth of ditches on tree performance.
Fertilization: Experiments with application of commercial fertilizer, other chemical agents or organic substances.
Tree species comparison: Experiments comparing different tree species performance on drained peat-land.